What is the material science  ?

material science is branch of science .Material comprise a wide range of meals and non-metals which must be processed to from the end product .Material science investigates relationships existing between the structures of material and their properties and concerns the inter-disciplinary study of material for engineering and practical purposes.It is based on solid state physics ans the chemistry of the structure of material .


Common engineering that come within the scope of materials science may be classified into one of the following three types:

(1) Metal ( ferrous and non - ferrous )
(2) Ceramics
(3) Organic polymers

1. Metal

Metal are element substance that readily give up electrons toi from metallic bonds and conduct electricity . When two  or more pure metals are melted together to form a new metal whose properties are quite different from those of the original metals it is called an alloy

2. Ceramics
These are materials consisting of phases .These are compounds of  metallic  and nonmetallic elements .Common ceramics are rocks minerals glass ,glass fibre, metallic compound ,fired clays , abrasives etc.

3. Organic polymers
These materials are carbon compounds .They are solids composed of long molecular chains .Their structures are fairly complex and three dimensional common organic materials are plastic and synthetic rubbers .

Engineering components should be made of materials  whose  properties   suit the application they are required for .The main engineering requirement are economic , fabrication and service requirement .
A knowledge of  materials science helps select the right engineering material for practical application under a wide range of conditions .


The important properties of engineering materials are:
1. Mechanical
2. Thermal
3. Optical
4. Magnetic
5. Chemical
6. Physical
7. Electrical

1. Mechanical Properties
These include the characteristics of the material that indicate its behaviour when external forces are applied Important mechanical properties are strength ,ductility , toughness , stiffness ,

2. Thermal Properties
A sound knowledge of the thermal properties is required to know the response of the material to thermal change.

3. Optical Properties
Colour ,light transmission and light reflection depend upon the refractive index ,reflectivity and absorption co-efficient of  the material used for optical work.

4.Chemical   Properties
The tendency of the material to combine with other substance its reactivity , solubility and effects like corrosion composition , acidity ,alkainity  etx.   called are chemical Properties .

5. Physical Properties
These are required to evaluate the condition of the material without any external  force acting on it .Dimensions , density , porosity and structure are included in the physical Properties .

6. Electrical Properties
These signify the ability of  the material to resist the flow of an electric current .These include conductivity , dielectric strength and resistivity .


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