It is an alloy of iron and carbon with carbon, content upto a maximum of 1.5%. Most of the steel produced now-a-days is plain carbon steel or simply carbon steel. It is divided into the following types depending upon the carbon content.

1. Dead mild steel          - upto 0.15% carbon

2. Low carbon or mild steel  - 0.15% to 0.45% carbon

3. Medium carbon steel   - 0.45% to 0.8% carbon 

4. High carbon steel   - 0.8% to 1.5% carbon

According to Indian standards the carbon steels are designed in the following order:

The principal methods of manufacturing steel are as follow.

1. Cementation process - The steel made by this process is cement steel because ferrite in the wrought  iron is converted into cementite. Since carbon combines with wrought iron and has its surface covered with blisters, therefore, the steel produced by this process is known as blister steel.

2. Crucible process - The steel produced by this method is very homogenous, free from slag and dirt and much superior to cement steel. The  steel so produced is known as crucible steel .

3. Bessemer process - In a bessemer  process, following are the three distinctive stages used to convert molten pig iron to steel.

(a) In the first stage the molten pig iron is poured into the converter.

(b) Second stage (known as blowing position  ) the converter is tilted to the vertical position and the air blast turned on. In this stage the silicon and manganese burns out which is indicated by the brown smoke rising up through the mouth of the converter. After this the carbon is next to oxidise which is indicated by a white flame.

(c) third stage (known as pouring position ) the white flame of the burning carbon drops and the contents of the converter are poured in a ladle. Now a small quantity of some ally rich in carbon and manganese is added to produce steel of quite good strength and ductility.

4. Open hearth process -  The open hearth process of steel making is sometimes called "Siemens-Martin Process". This process is more suitable than Bessemer process when a large quantity of mile steel, with definite quality and composition is required.

5. Duplex process -  The duplex process of steel making is a combination of acidic bessemer process and basic open hearth process. is in operation at Tata iron and steel works. Jamshedpur.

6. L-D process (Lin-Donawitz process) - It is the latest development in steel making process and is now adopted at Rourkela steel plant where three converters of 40tonnes capacity are working.

7. Electric Process - This process is mainly used for the preparation of high quality and special ally steels of high melting point. The electric process may be acidic or basic but basic process is mostly used because it permits extensive elimination of impurities. The basic lined furnace of the Heroult type is especially adopted to the production of best quality carbon and alloy steels 

type of steel

1. Carbon Steel

3. Tool Steel

4. Stainless Steel


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