why coolant is used in ic engine ?

Coolant is used in internal combustion engines (IC engines) for several important reasons:

1.    Heat Dissipation: During the combustion process, the engine's cylinders reach extremely high temperatures. Coolant, typically a mixture of water and antifreeze, absorbs heat from the engine and carries it away to prevent overheating. It helps maintain the engine's operating temperature within an optimal range, ensuring efficient performance and preventing damage to engine components.

2.    Temperature Regulation: Engines operate most efficiently at a specific temperature range. Coolant helps regulate the engine's temperature by absorbing excess heat when the engine is running too hot and releasing it when the engine is running too cold, helping to maintain a stable and consistent temperature.

3.    Preventing Boiling and Freezing: The boiling point of coolant is higher than that of water alone, which prevents it from boiling and turning into steam at high temperatures. This is crucial, as the formation of steam bubbles can lead to hot spots and reduced cooling efficiency, potentially causing engine damage. Moreover, the antifreeze properties of the coolant lower its freezing point, preventing the coolant from freezing in cold weather and causing engine block damage.

4.    Corrosion Protection: Coolant contains additives that protect the engine's internal components, such as the radiator, water pump, and cylinder walls, from corrosion and rust. These additives create a protective barrier, reducing the chances of metal deterioration caused by exposure to water and air.

5.    Lubrication: Coolant acts as a lubricant for the water pump, preventing wear and ensuring smooth operation of this essential component responsible for circulating the coolant through the engine.

6.    Sealing and Gasket Protection: Coolant also helps in maintaining the integrity of engine seals and gaskets by providing a suitable environment that prevents leaks and gasket failures.

In modern automotive engines, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol or propylene glycol is commonly used as coolant. This mixture offers an effective balance of heat transfer, boiling point elevation, and freeze protection. It is essential to regularly monitor the coolant level and ensure it is in good condition to prevent engine overheating and maintain the engine's overall health and efficiency.


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